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The Secret to Picking The Right Sunscreen

Secret to sunscreen

With so many sunscreens on the market, it is really hard to select one from all the masses to be “your” sunscreen. There are a lot of factors to take into account such as chemical vs physical ingredients, SPF, UVA protection, formulation, the list goes on and on! It’s completely overwhelming. Today we’ll look at a lot of the factors that go into picking the right sunscreen, and then I’ll share my secret for picking the right sunscreen for you!

Physical vs Chemical Sunscreen

• Physical sunscreens reflect light away from the skin while chemical sunscreens undergo a chemical reaction or change in structure to absorb the light.
• Chemical sunscreens absorb UV radiation rather than reflecting it away from skin. The light can be used in a chemical reaction, slightly altering the chemical structure of the sunscreen itself, or be released as a different UV wavelength.

Physical sunscreens are associated with less irritation and allergic reactions, but can feel much heavier on your skin and impart a white cast to skin. Chemical sunscreens have been found to absorb into skin, and have been found in urine samples.

So, which ingredients are which? The physical sunscreens are Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide. Everything else is a chemical sunscreen.

UV Range Covered

One would hope that this is pretty obvious, but you would be better served by a sunscreen that has full spectrum UV coverage, especially if you are planning to wear the product for high sun exposure.

I created a graphic based on the FDA’s sunscreen guidelines. Note that the wavelengths considered by the FDA are divided into three main groups, UVB, UVA I and UVA II. I realize that some of these active ingredients may actually a slightly wider UV range than what I have included here. However, it is much easier to just think of 3 ranges that need to be covered, and the FDA has broken it all down for us.

Taking into account what the FDA considers each approved sunscreen ingredient to cover, I created a graphic that I’ve been using for a year or so in sunscreen reviews. I specialize it for each review that I post, but if you are curious about the UV range covered by a product I haven’t reviewed, simply check the label and compare to this chart. Keep in mind that there are some alternative names for these ingredients. If there is a sunscreen listed under “Active Ingredients” (where all the sunscreens are listed) that you don’t recognize, just Google it and you’ll find out what it’s other name is.

UV Coverage for Sunscreen Ingredients

What SPF Do You Need?

While it’s a personal choice, I strongly encourage you to use at least SPF 15 everyday. You get a lot of UV exposure every day, even if it’s just driving your car or sitting near a window on occasion. This all adds up, and studies have found photoaging (particularly thickening of the epidermis) with repeated UVA exposures. It doesn’t need to be big exposures like a trip to the beach. If you use SPF 15 you need to make sure you use it properly to get the full protection offered.

Unfortunately many of us don’t use our sunscreen properly, and we’re actually getting a much lower effective SPF than we think we are. To help combat this you should use the highest SPF you can stand to use, especially for days with a lot of sun exposure. Think of it this way: If you’re misusing SPF 15 you might be lucky to get SPF 8. Misuse a SPF 85 and you are probably up in the SPF 45 range.

The final thing to think about when choosing your overall SPF is your skin tone. While I don’t think this should allow you to ever decrease your SPF (the above recommendations for SPF minimum hold for everyone regardless of skin tone), it might be a reason to increase your SPF. If you have a family history of skin cancers or happen to be pale like me, you should especially consider increasing your minimum SPF.

Formulations Available

which formulation of sunscreen is best
Lotions & Creams
These are the most typical formulations. Creams tend to be preferred by those with dry skin as they are more hydrating. Lotions are less thick, spread more easily and are less greasy. They typically are better for those with oily to combination skin.

This might be a good alternative if you have oily skin. Be careful if you want to use a gel during exercise though, alcohol based gels might cause burning/stinging in your eyes. There are water based gel options, check the label.

I love stick sunscreens. They are perfect for applying in a small area like the bridge of the nose that is very prominent. Because the sticks are usually based in wax or petroleum they tend to last longer and have fewer issues with prolonged water exposure.

I couldn’t find any information about how much sunscreen you need to use to get the right SPF if you have a spray formulation. But, it does seem pretty reasonable that they’ve formulated it to pretty much correlate

Misc. Formulations
There are a lot of powders and other makeup products that have SPF listed. In order to actually get the SPF listed on the product you have to use a lot more product than most women would ever use (for example, you’ll need a full 17g of powder on your face, which is more than half of a 30g translucent powder). I wouldn’t depend upon these products for all of my sun protection, but in combination with a lotion underneath…. the extra sunscreen is always a bonus!

Well, if you buy a tube of sunscreen at a store that is labelled “Waterproof” you need to take it back. The FDA no longer allows sunscreens to be labelled waterproof, so that’s either an old tube, or something not quite legal. I found it very interesting to read about the FDA requirements for a sunscreen to be labelled with varying amounts of water resistance.

Basically, there’s a system to the method of testing. Human volunteers apply the product to areas of skin that aren’t sun exposed for testing (basically, I think that means their butt?), they swim in an indoor pool for 20 minutes and then air dry. This is repeated multiple times. The SPF that the product tests at after the water exposure is what gets put on the label. A water resistant product had a total of 40 minutes water exposure, very water resistant products underwent 80 minutes of water exposure.

The Secret to Picking the Right Sunscreen

In an ideal world, all sunscreens would be SPF 30 or above with full UVA/UVB coverage. They would be water resistant. The sunscreen would have no smell and be so light that I would have no clue it was on my skin. It wouldn’t make me greasy looking or clog my pores. It would be stable for use all day without reapplication. In fact, it wouldn’t be a separate product, it would be part of my morning moisturizer. You get the idea.

Unfortunately, this product does not exist.

So, what we all need to do is prioritize and make compromises when picking our daily sunscreen product. For me, it is more important that the product be part of my morning routine (in my moisturizer, I’m not going to apply that much foundation or powder), I want it to be smell free and I don’t want to be able to tell that it is in the product. It can’t interfere with my makeup application. If any of those weren’t true I would not wear it each day. I’d end up making excuses like “Oh, I’m just going to work… I’ll wear the moisturizer without SPF.”

So, for my daily moisturizer (the one I use in between product testings, or each morning if I’m only testing new night products at that time) what I use is a moisturizer with SPF that is very gentle but does not cause me to break out. It is SPF 30 with UVB and UVA I coverage (I’ve compromised to not have UVA II coverage, I haven’t found a product yet that covers it and I like enough to be my go-to daily product). It’s a product that I can not tell the sunscreen is in it, so I just buy it in the SPF version.

I think most of us approach our “pool” sunscreens differently than our daily moisturizer. For longer sun exposure I prioritize UV range coverage and SPF much higher. I really want full UV coverage. I want at least SPF 45, the higher I can tolerate the better to help compensate in case I don’t apply enough sunscreen. I want it water resistant or very water resistant for swimming in my pool. I would prefer a lotion, though I do use stick sunscreens for areas like my nose. I’m willing to put up with sunscreen smell, and I’ll put up with it leaving a bit of residue behind so I can tell it’s on there, but I don’t want it to be heavy or make my skin itchy.

I reference the UV Range image above when I’m shopping for sunscreen, I actually have it saved to my phone!

The secret to picking the right sunscreen is to compromise on the right things so that you select a sunscreen that will protect your skin and that you’ll actually want to use!

Best Sunscreen Information
Find more information about how sunscreens work, application tips and product reviews in my sunscreen guide

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About Me

I’m a doctor, a mommy and a bit of a beauty addict. If you let me, I can take 2 hours to get ready in the morning. Really. I'm on a quest for faster beauty that works!

Leave a Comment


  1. 5.4.10
    Carol B said:

    Great article Christine. Thank you for taking the time to educate us all on the ins and outs of sunscreen. Bravo!

  2. 5.4.10
    Christina said:

    Do you think you could do a review of Le Roche Posay's Anthelios 60 sunscreen? I really like it but I'm wondering if it has proper protection and photostability in comparison with Neutrogena Helioplex AgePerfect (though I don't like Neutrogena because it pills everywhere!)

  3. 5.4.10
    joyce said:

    I was the anonymous who requested you to test out Neutrogena's Ultra Sheer liquid daily sunblock. I got too excited on my trip to CVS and purchased both the sunscreen and CG's lash blast fusion.
    I just put on the sunblock and I feel like the consistency is okay but it has a strong sunblock odor. I wanted something light to go underneath my makeup because I still prefer to put my own moisturizer on before my makeup.

    The best lightweight daily moisturizer I've tried was a sample I received from the mail by Boscia. It's their oil-free daily hydration spf 15. It goes on so sheer and I prefer the smell much better.

    The upside of Neutrogena is their spf 55 and since I don't believe I use the proper amount of spf I like the added protection it gives.

    I'd like to see your take on the two sunscreens or even what is your daily sunscreen at the moment?

  4. 5.5.10

    Thank you for the enlightenment on sunscreen! I use SPF 15 everyday. I've gotta keep my skin looking young and pampered like I just came from a facial! You are definately right about sun aging.

  5. 5.5.10

    People say that which ever food is good for heart is good for skin.When you start taking caring of your heart, it will reflect in your skin.

  6. 5.5.10
    Christine said:

    Thanks Carol!

    Christina- I ordered a tube of it about 10 days ago. I saw it on Skin Store.com and had to order it! It will be included for sure.

    Joyce- That's too bad about the sunscreen odor, but I definitely agree about the SPF 55. I am always convinced that I'm not putting on enough sunscreen, and I like to have the extra "buffer" for mistakes. I think I might have a sample of the Boscia around here somewhere, I'll have to look around and try it!

  7. 5.6.10

    what a great post! im trying to buy a new sunscreen so ur post was very helpful to me!

  8. 5.13.10
    03Wood said:

    Thanks for this informational post I want to protect my skin in my youth and this is really helpful on how to go about doing so properly. Thanks again!

  9. 6.5.10
    Lizzie said:

    Thanks! The post is very informative and helpful. I am still looking for my HG moisturizer with SPF. =)

  10. 7.25.11
    Charlie said:

    I just found you blog (love it!)

    I love Neutrogena Visibly Even Daily Moisturizer (with Helioplex, SPF 30). Maybe you can review this one at some point? I'd love to see how it compares to some of the other daily moisturizers.
    This is the one I've been wearing for a few years now; after switching from one of Olay's daily moisturizers (with sunscreen) because it felt too greasy.

  11. 7.26.11
    Jennifer said:

    This post is so interesting, and even though I'm diligent about putting on sunscreen before I go outside, I never knew this much about it! I love that you are able to go in depth about chemical processes without losing us! 🙂 For more great sunscreen tips, please check out some of our posts on runningwithmascara.com where we have a great assortment of advice! And let us know if you'd ever like to do a feature with us!

  12. 6.10.12
    Anonymous said:

    Can you review "Face Cotz" SPF 40? I just started using it after reading the Amazon reviews, and it's perhaps the best facial sunscreen with physical blockers I've ever tried: not greasy, not heavy, not smelly. It's kind of fluffy, for lack of a better word to describe the texture. However, I'm so fearful of the sun and have had such issues with melasma that I'm afraid if I can't see it, it's not working. Thanks if you can, I love your website!

  13. 6.20.12
    Christine said:

    I'll add it to my list!

  14. 5.23.13

    Wow, thank you for the info on sunscreen! One question though; which sunscreen to you recommend for 11-15 year olds? My mom kind of is having trouble finding the perfect one for my family. Thank you! <3

  15. 10.20.13
    Beezy_78 said:

    I use Cotz as well, it is THE BEST! Plus it double as a primer ( for me) and TRIPLES as a BB cream! I wear it alone when I'm on a light-makeup day, with a Lil blush and mascara, and it also works FABULOUS for under my Naked Foundation. 🙂 Cotz is THE BEST physical sunscreen ever! I've been a sunscreen freak for YEARS and my search ended when I discovered Cotz Spf 40 for face. 🙂

  16. 4.19.18

    Nice post! The content is really very informative. One should always use a good quality sunscreen as it not only protects our skin from harmful uv rays but also makes it glowing and beautiful. Thanks for sharing.

  17. 5.14.19
    Jing said:

    Hi, Doctor, May I ask if following sunscreens are safe for pregnancy? Thank you a lot!

    -Etude House Sunprise Mild Airy Finish Sun Milk SPF50+
    Water, Cyclopentasiloxane, Zinc Oxide, Alcohol, Dicaprylyl Ether, Dipropylene Glycol, Titanium Dioxide, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Viscum Album (Mistletoe) Leaf Extract, Portulaca Oleracea Extract, Centella Asiatica Extract, Opuntia Ficus-Indica Extract, Carex Humillis Root Extract, Citrus Aurantium Bergamia (Bergamot) Fruit Oil, Citrus Limon (Lemon) Peel Oil, Eucalyptus Globulus Leaf Oil, Pinus Sylvestris Leaf Oil, Citrus Aurantifolia (Lime) Oil, Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Peel Oil, Euterpe Oleracea Fruit Extract, Malpighia Emarginata (Acerola) Fruit Extract, Terminalia Ferdinandiana Fruit Extract, Echium Plantagineum Seed Oil, Adansonia Digitata Seed Oil, Hyaluronic Acid, Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil, Cardiospermum Halicacabum Flower/Leaf/Vine Extract, Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil Unsaponifiables, Vinyl Dimethicone/Methicone Silsesquioxane Crosspolymer, Peg-10 Dimethicone, Cyclomethicone, Magnesium Sulfate, Polymethylsilsesquioxane, Methicone, 1,2-Hexanediol, Aluminum Hydroxide, Methyl Methacrylate Crosspolymer, Caprylyl Glycol, Octyldodecanol, Dimethicone, Stearic Acid, Glyceryl Caprylate, Polyglyceryl-6 Polyricinoleate, Dimethicone/Vinyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Butylene Glycol, Triethoxycaprylylsilane, Cellulose Gum

    -Mom & World Mineral Based Baby Sunscreen Lotion
    Zinc Oxide (Sunscreen Agent), Octocrylene (Sunscreen Agent), Octyl Salicylate (Sunscreen Agent), Titanium Dioxide (Sunscreen Agent), Vitamin E Acetate

    -CATRIN Natural 100 Mineral Sun Kill RX Sunscreen SPF46
    Zinc Oxide 17.9%, Titanium Dioxide 17.3%, Mica, Silica, Bismuth Oxychloride, CI 77492, CI 77491, CI 77499, Quartz, Sapphire Powder

    • 5.14.19
      15mins said:

      The etude looks safe
      Mom and world isn’t a full ingredient list but won’t be safe for pregnancy for sure due to the chemical sunscreen and salicylate, I can’t comment regarding nursing without the rest of the list.
      Catrin also doesn’t look like a full list to me, so and I can’t comment if it is safe for sure without the full list but I don’t see anything that looks dangerous yet

      • 5.21.19
        Jing said:

        Thank you!

  18. 11.12.19
    Sophia said:

    Hi doctor! I would like to ask if the following sunscreens are safe during pregnancy

    + Laser Sunscreen 100 SPF50+/PA+++
    Ingredients: Water, Cyclopentasiloxane, Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate, Butylene Glycol, Ethylhexyl Salicylate, Zinc Oxide, Dicaprylyl Carbonate, Dipropylene Glycol, Titanium Dioxide, Lauryl PEG-8 Dimethicone, PEG-10 Dimethicone, Dimethicone, Disteardimonium Hectorite, Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E), Magnesium Sulfate, Methyl Methacrylate Crosspolymer, Phenyl Trimethicone, Aluminum Hydroxide, Aluminum Stearate, Methicone, Polyglyceryl-6 Polyricinoleate, Glyceryl Caprylate, Caprylyl Glycol, Disodium EDTA, Ubiquinone, Hydrolyzed Collagen, Acetyl Hexapeptide-8, Fragrance, Phenoxyethanol

    + Innisfree Tone-Up No Sebum Sunscreen
    Ingredients: Cyclopentasiloxane, Water, Zinc Oxide, Titanium Dioxide, Methyl Methacrylate Crosspolymer, PEG-10 Dimethicone, Isodecyl Neopentanoate, Silica, Mica, Glycerin, Disteardimonium Hectorite, Propylene Glycol, Cyclomethicone, Magnesium, Aluminum Hydroxide, Aluminum Stearate, Polymethyl Methacrylate, Dimethicone/Vinyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer, Dimethicone, Inulin, Phenoxyethanol, Sorbitan Sesquioleate, Propanediol, Caprylyl Glycol, Fragrance, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Glyceryl Caprate, Polyglyceryl-6 Behenate, Ethylhexylglycerin, Iron Oxides, Centella Asiatica Extract, Cellulose Gum, Butylene Glycol, Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract, Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil, Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Leaf Extract, Citrus Junos Peel Extract, Camellia Japonica Leaf Extract, Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Fruit Extract, Hedera Helix (Ivy) Extract, Citric Acid, Sodium Benzoate, Potassium Sorbate

    On the other hand, I would like to ask if the ingredient labeled “Fragrance” in skincare products is safe for pregnancy; for example, in these products: Innisfree Intensive hydrating serum/cream/cleansing foam with green tea seed.

    Thank you so much!

    • 11.17.19
      15mins said:

      The first has chemical sunscreens to avoid, so only pregnancy safe. The 2nd is ok for pregnancy.
      The fragrance is ok

  19. 5.30.21
    LRhodes said:

    Hello, thank you very much for your work! It’s so helpful! I’ve found an spf cream that might be ok. Would the following list of ingredients be safe for pregnancy? Thank you so much!

    TOCOPHEROL. [BI 694]

    • 5.30.21
      Christine said:

      Safe for pregnancy and nursing

  20. 7.19.21
    Edith said:

    Hi! This is my first pregnancy and Loya of mineral sunscreens have chemical ingredients that we shouldn’t use. So for mineral sunscreens, what words should we look for? I’ve Noticed that on your comments you say “no because this has chemical ingredients so what words can we look for so we know what not to buy? Thanks!

  21. 9.12.21
    Karin said:

    Hi Dr, can you please let me know if this ALTHEA
    Petal Velvet Sunaway sunscreen is safe to use during pregnancy? Looks like there are zinc oxide and titanium dioxide which means it’s a physical sunscreen so it’s safe? But I just want to make sure. Thanks so much Dr.


    • 9.13.21
      Christine said:

      Safe for pregnancy and nursing